With all the hype surrounding crowdfunding, knowing what the different options are and which specific benefits they offer can seem difficult. To help you remember you can use the acronym DREIM, which stands for:
- Donation (philanthropy)
- Reward (“pre-tailing”)
- Equity (shares)
- Interest (debt) and
Of the five models, donation is perhaps the simplest to understand. Basically, it’s a form of philanthropy, whereby people give money to a good cause. Donors are left with the warm feeling that comes from knowing they’ve done something positive by funding a project with social value.
Within the arts, this has traditionally been represented by the concept of a sponsor or patron of an artist or field of creative work. There are many of these in crowdfunding, perhaps the most well known being JustGiving, but others include Spacehive, which is dedicated to social or community causes, and Unbound, a special model where authors ask the crowd for funding to help turn an idea into a published book.
This is the model that most comes to mind when people think about crowdfunding. The crowd pledges money to a project and gets something in return, such as a poster or item of merchandise. The reward model is represented well on both sides of the Atlantic by the likes of Kickstarter and Indiegogo, but there are plenty of UK sites, such as Bloom Venture Catalyst and Crowdfunder, and these support projects ranging from artists to zoos.
This is where the project’s management (could be a business owner) offers a share of the profits to the crowd. Once money is made or the project is sold, the investors get a share (well, that’s the idea). This is risky, because start-ups often fail, so the likes of Seedrs, which specialises in this model, requires would-be investors to pass a test before they can invest. But the good news for investors (and entrepreneurs using this model) is the government has introduced the SEIS (Seed Enterprise Investment Scheme) and EIS (Enterprise Investment Scheme), which offer tax breaks for investors. There are restrictions and the best place to learn more is by visiting the HMRC website.
Equity usually means giving away some control over a project or business, of course. This could be difficult for some people, which is why this model of crowdfunding needs careful consideration before you proceed. When you give away equity you will also need to seek legal advice, which costs money and takes time. Investors generally look for growth businesses they can scale up and sell in the future.
This model is similar to getting a bank loan except you get the loan from the crowd and it is on your terms rather than a banks. As with equity, you may find a lack of enthusiasm in your business unless you can prove its potential for major growth. Another problem could be higher rates of interest. The headline numbers might look the same as a high street bank, but you need to consider fees charged by the crowdfunding platform and the payment processor. This all adds up.
Mixed is just as it sounds – a mix of models. For example, the Crowdbnk platform offers reward or equity, which is why careful consideration is advised before crowdfunding your project. Plus, you need to check the provider is FSA regulated (Crowdbnk is), which will ensure you are covered should they go bankrupt or if you find out a campaign is fraudulent.
Blog supplied by Chris Buckingham, lecturer and founder of crowdfunding research agency minivation.