A key task when starting up is drawing up a sound business plan that outlines your idea, strategy for achieving your aims and other key information. Alan Gleeson explains how to create such a business plan and present it
It's a document that enables businesses to look ahead, focus on key issues, allocate resources where they're needed and prepare for problems and opportunities well in advance. Too many people think of business plans as something they only need when they're starting up or when they need to borrow money or attract funding. They're just as important to running a business.
Usually, they describe the firm's products or services, customers, competitors, management team, strategy and implementation plan, as well as detailing profit and loss projections, sales and cash flow forecasts. The key points and figures are highlighted in an executive summary, which appears at the beginning of the plan.
Don't think in terms of a 'business plan', rather different versions of your business plan, each tailored to the reader and guided by your specific objectives in that instance. If you're trying to attract funding, your business plan should provide compelling evidence you need the money and can afford to pay back any loans.
You've got to get the executive summary right, because in most cases experienced people will read this first and if it doesn't capture their imagination, inspire or impress them, they won't bother reading the rest.
Sound figures underpin all good business plans. Your financial information must stack up when scrutinised. Specifically, I'm talking about cash flow predictions, sales forecasts and profit and loss projections. Cash is usually misunderstood to mean profits, but making profits doesn't mean you'll have enough cash to pay your bills. Many profitable ventures have gone under because of cash flow problems. Your plan must also show your business has effective cash flow management measures.
Brilliant strategies and beautifully formatted planning documents are just theory unless you assign responsibilities to managers, with clear objectives, dates and budgets that enable you to measure results.
It's not a simple question of number of pages. A 10-page business plan with dense text and no graphics is harder to read and digest than a 20-page plan broken up with bullet points, user-friendly illustrations and charts. A well laid-out plan will offer readers a sufficient overview of its main points after a quick skim. Format, headings, white space and illustrations make a big difference. Key points should stand out as immediately as they do in an effective business pitch or presentation. Also make sure the document looks good and reads well. Any mistakes will make you look unprofessional.
A business plan will be easier to implement if it's simple, specific, realistic and comprehensive. But even then, someone needs to take ownership for implementation and monitoring of progress. In a small business, of course, this is usually the owner-manager. They need the energy and drive to make the plan a success – otherwise it's unlikely to happen.