How to work out tax and NI

Small-business owners are not expected to be experts on tax and NI, but ignorance is no defence. Here are some of the key rates and facts you need.

A man files his tax return

Essential guide to business tax

It helps to understand the taxes likely to affect your business, and have systems to help you comply with your obligations. Read our tax overview.

Business person performing VAT calculations

Essential guide to VAT

Once your sales reach the annual threshold, you must register for VAT. Our guide to when and how to register, and what you need to do once you have.

National Insurance contributions

Essential guide to National Insurance

National Insurance overview for employers to help minimise National Insurance Contributions (NICs) and understand National Insurance rates and allowances.

A calculators spells out VAT

VAT registration

If you register for VAT with HM Revenue & Customs (HMRC), you must charge VAT on any goods and services you sell that are subject to VAT.

Self-employed man working out his taxes

Q&A: Tax for the self employed

If you're self employed it's up to you to take responsibility for paying income tax and NI. Accountant James McBrearty explains the basics

Corner of a calculator on top of numerical report

Q&A: Tax returns

Chartered certified accountant Raphael Coman of Coman & Co answers some key questions about tax returns, including important deadlines.

A long till receipt in curled up on a desk

Q&A: VAT registration

Do you need to register your business for VAT and how do you register for VAT? Kate Fisher of CJ Fisher & Co answers your questions about VAT registration.

A completed payslip generated by PAYE compliant software


If you have employees, you must operate a PAYE scheme. Chartered accountant Howard Hackney provides need-to-know answers to questions about PAYE.

women using calculator to calculate.

Setting up your payroll - checklist

If you take on employees, you will need to set up a payroll system to make sure you're fulfilling your legal obligations. Here's where to start.